The Minimal Design Team, according to Victor Papanek

In our workshop based on the book, we discuss the range of skills that need to be brought to bear for a design team (which is more extensive than what we wrote in the book):

design skills

This breadth is necessary for delivering on end-to-end service experiences that cross-channels, devices, and touchpoints. If the team doesn’t warrant having these skills on staff, it still needs to be responsible for the work done by any contract or external folks.

When we wrote this, we thought we were being quite bold in claiming design orgs should be responsible for delivery across such a gamut of practices.

Today I attended “Hippie Modernism” at the Berkeley Art Museum as part of Snagajob Design’s “Inspiration Day.”* It’s an impressive exhibit, detailing the intersection of progressive/counterculture sentiments and technological advances. There are many pieces devoted to design and architecture, and I was struck by this poster (“‘Big Character’ Poster No 1.: Work Chart for Designers”) by Victor Papanek, designer and design theorist who promoted humanistic values in design:

workchartfordesigners

(Click to see larger. And give yourself some time with it. It’s worth it.)

44 years later, everything on this chart is still highly relevant to our society. Of particular note for people interested in design organizations is his proclamation of “the minimal Design Team”:

the minimal design team

So much for us being bold!

*Inspiration Day is a Snagajob Design team activity, where any team member gets one work day a quarter to go out and be inspired.

Where should designers sit?

One of the most common questions we get when teaching our workshop, and which friend-of-the-blog Todd Dominey submitted through our contact form, is “Where should designers sit?” It’s an interesting question, because it feeds a debate where there are two positions:

  1. Designers should sit with other designers in a studio-like setting, to benefit from peer critique, and learn and develop from one another.
  2. That’s stupid, because designers should sit with their cross-functional teams to better support product development.

For us, the response, as they say on Crazy Ex-Girlfriend (a show you really must watch, if you haven’t yet), is more nuanced than that.

To figure out where designers sit, consider a number of factors. In a company with a new design team, a small design team, or a low-morale design team, designers should sit together. This supports designers building a sense of camaraderie and learning from one another. If designers are isolated, they may grow weary of only being around those that are different from them, bristle at the lack of growth and learning opportunities with peers, and, eventually, leave to a company where they can grow their practice and careers.

As a company builds its design team and strengthens its culture, a transition occurs, where it becomes a benefit to sit with their cross-functional teams. The community bond is strong enough and the morale is high enough that it won’t break when designers are separated. There’s a productivity benefit when designers are in proximity to their cross-functional squads. And, with a strong design culture to draw from, designers advocate for a design-mindset with their non-design peers, helping make the whole company more design-driven. 

This should not mean a single designer sitting among a sea of engineers. There should never be only one designer working on anything – the idea of a design team is crucial, even if it’s just made up of 2 people. 

There is a third way, for companies with enough office space. Designers can have two seats — a primary one with their cross-functional team, and a secondary one with their design team (or with the whole design org). That way they still spend most of their time with their cross-functional colleagues, but also get time for critique, fresh eyes, fresh thinking, mentorship, etc., from the rest of the design team. It could work alongside a weekly cadence like this:

  • Monday—cross functional team: start the week with any planning, coordination, discussion, initial sketching
  • Tuesday—with design team: more of a ‘heads down’ day, with maybe an afternoon review across the whole team
  • Wednesday—with cross functional team: show the work that’s been done so far, get feedback, input, ask and answer questions, etc.
  • Thursday—back with design team: start applying polish to work, maybe more formal critique for refinements
  • Friday—with cross-functional team; wrap things up, get things ready for production, etc. etc.

We’d love to hear what you think, what has and has not worked for you. Leave us a comment!

Customer-centered is the optimal org model in a world of services

In Org Design for Design Orgs, we argue that design teams should be organized by customer journey. Let’s say your service is a simple marketplace. Instead of having designers embedded in the different product teams that make up the marketplace (a fully decentralized and embedded model), or instead of having a single monolithic team (a fully centralized model), to instead have one team dedicated to the Buyer Experience, and another team dedicated to Seller Experience.

focused-on-user-types

This reflects our belief that design works best when focused on customer journeys and their end-to-end experiences, in contrast to focusing on the products and features that make up those journeys. It’s a subtle distinction, but powerful–features are simply a manifestation of the relationship between customers and the business, and organizing this way helps a team pay more attention to the whole relationship, and avoid the trap of being so focused on specific features that they can’t see the forest for the trees.

I’ve been presenting this model for a couple years now, discouraging design teams from organizing the way engineering and product management teams do, because those functions have different operating models. Product management often organizes around, well, products, which are discrete entities whose success is determined within the bounds of the product. Engineering teams organize either by product, or by platform/codebase, in order to realize efficiencies and promote quality.

So I was surprised when earlier this year, product management expert Ken Norton shared his perspectiveOrganize your product managers around customers, not code repositories. Connect PM areas of ownership to users and their product experiences. Maybe you have a buyer PM and a seller PM instead of back-end and front-end PMs.”

He then published a response from product executive Noah Weiss: “Just like it’s ideal to organize your PM team around customers and use cases, the same goes for engineering. Otherwise, you risk having a PM responsible for a use case having to work with half a dozen engineering teams to ship a feature: server, web, iOS, Android, infra, etc.”

So, what’s going on here?

I think these perspectives have aligned as a reaction to a broader shift in business, from products to services. Microsoft and Adobe once made boxed software sold on shelves, and the teams that worked on them were rightly focused on what went in their box. Now these companies sell subscriptions to access across their suite, and so coherence and coordination is crucial for success.

The key distinction between a product and service is that the service is predicated on a customer relationship. And in these networked services, these relationships must be maintained 24/7.

As companies embrace what it means to be a service firm, they understand that what’s most important is the healthy maintenance of that customer relationship. And so they realize they need to move away from old methods of organizing that were anathema to a customer’s end-to-end experience, and towards customer-centrism.

I believe design, because of it’s empathetic stance, and relatively smaller team size, has been able to sense and react to this shift ahead of other teams’ awareness. But whereas I used to think this orientation was perhaps specific to designers, I now believe we’ll see entire companies reshape this way.

 

 

 

Centralized vs Decentralized UX orgs… over 20 years ago

In Org Design for Design Orgs, an entire chapter (Ch. 4, The Centralized Partnership) addresses organization models for design teams, specifically centralized, decentralized and embedded, and the Centralized Partnership, our preferred hybrid approach.

After I spoke at the Big Design Conference in Dallas last week, an attendee, Randolph Bias, pointed me to a paper he co-wrote in 1995 (“Usability Support Inside and Out”, PDF) about about whether or not usability engineering teams should be centralized or embedded. It turns out our book echoes many of the themes in this 20-year-old paper…

On the benefits of centralized:

Regarding the objective of maintaining usability engineering expertise, one primary advantage of the centralized model is it facilitates maintaining a human factors “critical mass.” The “care-and-feeding” of the human factors professional is very likely to be monitored, and good, under such a model. Relatedly, it is easier to hire new human factors professionals into such an organization, and the department manager is likely to know how to evaluate the professional’s contribution.

And the benefits of “mainstreamed” (their term for embedded):

The beauty of being a mainstreamed human factors professional is being, and being seen as, a team member. The clear buy-in of someone in the development group per se helps with communications to and from the rest of the product developers.

Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose.

Glowing unsolicited feedback about “Org Design for Design Orgs”

In writing Org Design for Design Orgs, Kristin and I had a sense of the kind of impact it could have, in that it addresses a gap in the current conversation around design, specifically on organizational, operational, and managerial issues. And while we consider this topic vital, we weren’t sure how readers would respond.

So, color us thrilled when this unsolicited feedback come our way a couple days ago. Responses like this that affirm our toil was worth it, and suggests the kinds of value you might get from the book.

Thank you so much for writing this book! The minute I started reading it, I couldn’t tear my eyes from it. It was almost 2am when I found myself in the middle of chapter 7, and had to really talk myself into getting some sleep that night.

Your book is so rich with personable, practical substance on how build design culture, that I felt like I was in a cozy fireside chat with a design mentor. It’s like I was listening to stories from someone who has lived through it all. Someone who could relate and empathize deeply with the issues I’m facing with my design organization now, and give smart, actionable advice on how to proceed forward.

I’m a designer and researcher at a startup that grew from 25 to 50 people over the course of 2 years. Our design team suffered through the “drawbacks of centralization” (your description of the “us vs them attitude” and designers rolling their eyes was uncannily accurate), and are now going through the “decentralized and embedded” setup. We haven’t lived in this model long enough to hit the drawbacks, but reading your book felt like it was a warning for what’s to come. Then reading about the “centralized partnership” is where I got seriously excited, and made me itch to propose these changes to my team immediately.

Our design team has been through so many ups and downs. Struggling with getting design to be recognized, getting research to be valued and integrated, designers hitting career ruts and stunted growth, issues with aligning with leadership. This book covered all these issues in well organized manner, supported by clear diagrams and real world stories.

This truly is the book I wish I had since the beginning. The book I would reference with, write proposals and plans with, wallow in sorrow with, get uplifted with hope with. It confronts the reality of being an in-house designer straight on. I always have it with me when I’m at work, showing highlighted sections to my design manager, to product managers and engineering leads I work with.

It’s not only a book that I know will be useful throughout my career in design, it’s the greatest design mentor I could ever ask for, always in my back pocket.

Thank you so much for writing this book.